The Sources section lists materials used to write the landmarks. This section is organized around the website's pages and geographically based tours.

ABOUT (the project)

Brown Robert D., Jennifer Vanos, Natasha Kenny, and Sanda Lenzholzer. “Designing Urban Parks that Ameliorate the Effects of Climate Change.” Landscape and Urban Planning 138 (2015): pp. 118-131.

Clarke. George Elliott. Fire on the Water: An Anthology of Black Nova Scotian Writing. Vol. 1, Pottersfield Press, 1991. 

___. “‘This is no hearsay’: Reading the Canadian Slave Narratives.Papers of the Bibliographical Society of Canada 43.1 (2005): pp. 7-32.

Davies, Gwendolyn. “Alice Jones.”, 2008. 

Kenins, Laura. “Halifax Fiction.”, 2011. 

Kernaghan, Lois K. “Katzmann, Mary Jane (Lawson).”, 1982-2019. 

Lawrence, Henry W. “The Greening of the Squares of London: Transformation of Urban Landscapes and Ideals.Annals of the Association of American Geographers 83.1 (1993): pp. 90-118.

Loughran, Kevin. “Urban Parks and Urban Problems: An Historical Perspective on Green Space Development as a Cultural Fix.” Urban Studies (2018): pp. 1-18. 

Nichols, B. Ashton. Beyond Romantic Ecocriticism: Toward Urbanatural Roosting. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2011.

Taylor, Dorceta E. The Environment and the People in American Cities, 1600s–1900s: Disorder, Inequality, and Social Change. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2009.

Taylor, Lucy and Dieter F. Hochuli. “Defining Green-Space: Multiple Uses across Multiple Disciplines.” Landscape and Urban Planning 158 (2017): pp. 25-38.

Turcotte, Martin. “Life in Metropolitan Areas.” Statistics Canada – Government of Canada,, 2014.

Whitehead, Ruth Holmes. Nɨniskamijinaqik - Ancestral Images: The Mi’kmaq in Art and Photography. Halifax: Nimbus, 2015.


Baumann, Paul. “Catholics & Democracy: Michael Williams & the Culture Wars.” Nov 2, 2004.

Lane, Hannah M. “‘The Garden of the Dead’: The Old Burial Ground, Cemetery Reform, and Cultural Memory.” The Creative City of Saint John. Edited by Gwendolyn Davies, Peter Larocque & Christl Verduyn. Halifax: Formac, pp. 84-90.

Mercer, Keith. "Colonial Patriotism to 'Mystical Chords of Memory': The Halifax Celebrations and Commemoration of the Shannon-Chesapeake Battle.” Acadiensis XLIV: 1 (2015): np.

Montgomery, L.M. Anne of the Island. L.C. Page & Co, 1915.

Old Burying Ground National Historic Site of Canada.” Directory of Federal Heritage Designations, Parks Canada.

Simpson, Cynthia. “The Treatment of Halifax’s Poor House Dead during the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries.” Master’s thesis, Saint Mary’s University, August 2011.

Simson, Letitia F. “The Lines Written while Walking in the Old Burying-Ground.” Flowers of the Year and Other Poems. Saint, NB: J & A McMillan, 1869. pp. 82-84. Canadiana., 2019.

___. “Song to the Skaters of the St. John Skating Rink.” Flowers of the Year and Other Poems. Saint, NB: J & A McMillan, 1869. p. 12., 2019.

The Old Burying Ground.” The Old Burying Ground Foundation, 2014.

The Old (Loyalist) Burying Ground.” Tourism New Brunswick. 2019.

Trask, Deborah. Life How Short, Eternity How Long: Gravestone Carving and Carvers in Nova Scotia. Halifax: Nova Scotia Museum, 1978.

Williams, Michael. The Book of the High Romance: A Spiritual Autobiography. New York: MacMillan, 1918.


Acadian Recorder. January 17, 1863, p. 3. Quoted in Susan E. Markham’s “The Halifax Common: An Example of Nineteenth Century Leisure Service Delivery.” Proceedings of the Third Canadian Congress on Leisure Research, pp. 453-470. Edited by T.L. Burton. Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta, 1981.

Armstrong, Bruce and John Davis. “The Public Gardens.” Sanctuary: Halifax’s Parks and Public Gardens. Halifax: Nimbus, 1996.

Cameron, Peggy. “Foreword.” Writing the Common. Poetry Commemorating the 250th Anniversary of the Halifax Common, 1763-2013. Kentville, N.S.: Gaspereau Press Limited, 2013. pp. 11-22.

Celebrate the Common 250. Friends of the Halifax Commons, 2013.

Duncan, Francis. Our Garrisons in the West; or, Sketches in British North America. London: Chapman and Hall, 1864.

Editor of the Halifax Witness. “Halifax Scenery.” Stewart’s Literary Quarterly Magazine 3.3 (Oct. 1869): pp. 259-64., 2019. 

MacMechan, Archibald. Headwaters of Canadian Literature. McClelland & Stewart, 1924.

Montgomery, L. M. Anne of Green Gables. Boston: L.C. Page & Co, 1908. 

___. Anne of the Island. Boston: L.C. Page & Co., 1915. 

___. Anne of Windy Poplars. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1936.

___. The Complete Journals of L.M. Montgomery: The PEI Years, 1889–1900. Edited by Mary Henley Rubio and Elizabeth Hillman Waterston. Don Mills, ON: Oxford UP, 2012.

Our Monthly Gossip.” The Provincial; or, Halifax Monthly Magazine 2.11 (1853): p. 439., 2019. 

Oxley, James Macdonald. “Ice Skating in Canada.” Outing: An Illustrated Monthly Magazine of Recreation. Vol. 7 (Oct. 1885-March 1886): pp. 413-6.

Raddall, Thomas. Halifax: Warden of the North. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1965.

Roberts, Charles G. D. “Halifax.” The Canadian Guide-book. A Guide to Eastern Canada and Newfoundland, including Full Descriptions of Routes, Cities, Points of Interest, Summer Resorts, Information for Sportsmen, Etc. New York : D. Appleton, 1891, pp. 218-38., 2019.

Rubio, Mary Henley. Lucy Maud Montgomery: The Gift of Wings. Anchor Canada, 2010.

Smith, Emma. “The Quest to find a Victorian-era Rink Buried Beneath the Public Gardens.” CBC. July 14, 2018. 

The Friends of the Public Gardens. The Halifax Public Gardens. Halifax: The Halifax Public Gardens, 2013.

Ward, Anna L. “Nova Scotia. Along the Southeast Shore.” Frank Leslie’s Popular Monthly 25 (1888): pp. 21-30.

Whitehead, Ruth Holmes. The Old Man Told Us: Excerpts from Micmac History, 1500-1950. Halifax, N.S.: Nimbus, 1991. 

Wilson, Alex. “The Public Gardens of Halifax, Nova Scotia.” The Journal of Garden History 3. 3 (2012): pp. 179–192. Quoted in The Friends of the Public Gardens. The Halifax Public Gardens. Halifax: The Halifax Public Gardens, 2013. p. 12.